The Nonreligious-Nonspiritual Scale (NRNSS): Measuring Everyone from Atheists to Zionists

Cragun, Ryan T., Joseph H. Hammer, and Michael Nielsen. 2015. “The Nonreligious-Nonspiritual Scale (NRNSS): Measuring Everyone from Atheists to Zionists.” Science, Religion, and Culture 2(3):36–53.

Science, Religion, and Culture is an open-access journal.  You can download the article directly from their site.  Or you can download it here.

For those interested in using the scale, here are the items and directions for use (download this file here):

The NRNSS has been translated into the following languages:

Greek – Polemikou, Anna, Eirini Zartaloudi, and Nikitas Polemikos. 2019. “Estimating Nonbelief: Translation, Cultural Adaptation, and Statistical Validation of the Nonreligious-Nonspiritual Scale in a Nationwide Greek Sample.” Archive for the Psychology of Religion 0084672419878819. doi: 10.1177/0084672419878819.

Turkish – Sevi̇nç, Kenan, Metin Güven, and Tuğba Meti̇nyurt. 2015. “Dindar ve Spiritüel Olmama (DİSOL) Ölçeğinin Türkçe’ye Uyarlanması.” Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi (6):59–86. URL:

Brazilian Portuguese – (forthcoming)